Farmers have been protesting for nearly a month over the reforms, enacted in September, to deregulate the agriculture sector, allowing farmers to sell to buyers beyond government-regulated wholesale markets.

Small farmers fear the changes will mean the end of guaranteed minimum prices for their crops and leave them at the mercy of big retailers.

“If these black laws come, more farmers will go deeper into debt,” said 40-year-old Harshdeep Kaur, a widow from Punjab state, at one protest site on the outskirts of the capital, New Delhi.

“More mothers and sisters will become widows like me.”

Suicide by struggling farmers has been a problem in India for years.

Nearly 10,350 farmers and agricultural labourers committed suicide in 2018 – making up almost 8% of all suicides in India, according to the National Crime Records Bureau.

Kaur said her husband committed suicide three years ago after running up debts of 500,000 rupees (nearly $7,000). As she spoke, she held a passport sized photo of him.

The reforms, contained in three laws, loosen rules around the sale, pricing and storage of farm produce.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has tried to assure farmers the changes will bring them new opportunities but few have been convinced. Several rounds of talks between farm union leaders and the government have failed.

“We’ll keep protesting,” said Gurbax Singh, a farmer union leader at a north Delhi protest site.

The farmers have gathered at various sites around the capital since late last month, blocking traffic and clashing with police, at least in the early days of their action.

Singh said dozens of buses, tractors and cars were being arranged to bring more women from Punjab – the epicentre of the agitation.

The protesters occupied several kilometres of a busy main road in western Delhi with their tractors on Wednesday.

At a nearby protest site, old farmers lounged in ramshackle shelters beside medical stalls and makeshift kitchens.

Kaur said she and other women were prepared to protest until the laws were repealed.

“More women will come,” she said.

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